Editorial and Content-related Requirements


I. Requirements concerning Articles


a) The length of articles should not, as a rule, be less than 12 pages or more than 20 pages of standard typescript (with the agreement of the Editor-in-Chief, the maximum length may be exceeded). Parameters: font Verdana 11, spacing 1.5, bold (but not capitals) titles and mid-titles (if the logic of the text requires it, subsections may be created - then the title should be written in italics).

b) The article should be accompanied by an abstract of 600-800 characters, including spaces.

2. Infographics and Photographs

a) It is possible to include illustrations and graphics in texts, but it is necessary to obtain the rights to published photographs, drawings and tables if they were not taken/done by the Author. If written permission for reprinting cannot be obtained and the illustration is an essential element of the text - the Editorial Team should be requested to commission an external entity to produce the graphics.

b) Each figure, table or graph must have a number and a title (e.g. Table 1. Budget deficit in the European Union countries in the years 2005-2010) and a specified source (e.g. Source: Own compilation or Own compilation based on ...). The title is above the pasted object, the source below it (do not place a full stop after the title; it comes after the stated source).

3. Spelling

a) The starting point for editing is the rules of the Polish language, contained among others in PWN dictionaries and on the website of the Council for the Polish Language.

b) Do not write in capital letters or italics. An exception is made for names (proper names, names of systems, documents, policies etc.) in a language other than Polish (including Latin names - e.g. status quo, versus), in which case italics are mandatory. However, this does not apply, for example, to newspaper titles such as 'The New York Times', names of ministries, organisations, institutions and agencies (e.g. International Energy Agency).

(c) Articles should be written in the third person (not: "We must open up more to cooperation with our neighbours", but: "Poland needs to open up more to cooperation with its neighbours") or impersonally (e.g. One should...).

d) Use of a hyphen/dash/paragraph/quotation marks:
- do not put full stops after titles and subtitles. A hyphen (a sign joining words with a "-"), should be written without a space between the joined words (e.g. Polish-Russian relations);
- As a rule, the dash ("-") is separated from the preceding and following words by a space (e.g. It should be emphasised that China - with all its problems - is a very important market for the United States). A dash (without a space) is also used in expressions: NATO-Russia Council and when giving a range of dates, parties, etc. (e.g. 1995-1998, pp. 12-25);
- brackets should only be used where necessary;
- inverted commas are necessary when the author quotes, gives the title of a newspaper or magazine; a phrase is figurative, ironic or is a colloquial expression. Do not use inverted commas after "so called" (e.g. so called cold war or "cold war").

(e) Abbreviations
- when the Author introduces someone in the text for the first time, they should write his/her function as well as complete first name name and surname (e.g. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton); afterwards, there are a couple of options available: either the first letter of the first name and surname should be written, or complete first name and surname, or the function followed by the first letter of the first name and full surname (e.g. H. Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State H. Clinton);
- if the Author uses the abbreviated name of an organisation, document, strategy or policy, he/she should write its full name first and the abbreviation in brackets, and only in subsequent sentences may the abbreviation itself be used (e.g. “The President has inaugurated the Strategic National Security Review (SNSR). The purpose of the SNSR is to comprehensively assess the state of national security of the Republic of Poland"). If the author refers to a foreign document or an international organisation, then: first the name in Polish should be given followed the original name and the abbreviation in brackets (e.g. Stowarzyszenie Narodów Azji Połudiowo-Wschodniej (Association of South-East Asian Nations, ASEAN)). If the name of a document/strategy/agreement is used only once in the text, the abbreviation should not be used;
- when the author writes about a legal act - only the first time the full name should be used (in a footnote additionally information should be provided about the source – place and time of publication, etc.), followed by the abbreviated name (in lower case). Long names of legal acts should be shortened to the shortest possible names, provided that they allow to identify the document (e.g. the Act of 18 April 2002 on the state of natural disasters - the first time it appears in the text, the Act on the state of natural disasters - each subsequent time). The names of laws in footnotes should be written in normal font, not in italics;
- When indicating the date: the month should be written in words. Also the year of the event should be given.

f) Generally accepted (commonly used and understood) names of countries that are not also full names may be used in texts, e.g. Russia may be written instead of the Russian Federation; the United States or the USA instead of the United States of America.

g) Foreign-language names should generally be translated into Polish; however, the original name may be provided in brackets (it is then written in italics) and used interchangeably (to add variety to the text). Being aware of the correctness of both forms, “defence”, not “defense”, should be written in texts (unless the latter form is used in the original document).

i) Not applicable (applies to spelling of ordinal numbers in Polish).

j) Names of functions held should be written with a capital letter (e.g. Secretary General of NATO, Minister of the Interior). Full names of institutions, such as ministries, offices, bureaus, should be written with a capital letter. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (France, Russian Federation, etc.), as a proper name, should be written with a capital letter. When later in the text the Author writes the abbreviated version – he/she should use a lower case: armed forces. The author should also use lowercase when referring to the armed forces in general (e.g. Today, armed forces around the world are being modernised).

II. Rules concerning footnotes

Footnotes must be included when: the Author refers to something (a document, an opinion), quotes a statement or document, gives figures, statistics, etc., and when he/she wants to explain something that is not directly related to the paper. The footnote number should be placed before the full stop.

2) Footnotes in foreign languages:
a) When a foreign-language (non-English) publication appears in a footnote, the title should be written in the original language and the translation in brackets, e.g.T. Sarrazin, Deutschland schafft sich ab. Wie wir unser Land aufs Spiel setzen [Germany liquidates itself: how we put our country at risk], Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt 2010.
b) Title names in English footnotes should be capitalized (except for prepositions, articles-prepositions: at, on, the, etc.), e.g. Pirani, J. Stern, K. Yafimava, The Russo-Ukrainian Gas Dispute of January 2009: A Comprehensive Assessment, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 1 February 2009, (accessed 14 October 2011).

3) Latin abbreviations (in italics) should be used in footnotes: "ibidem", "op. cit." instead of "ibidem", "op. cit.". When using "op. cit." the first letter of the author's first name, surname and then the abbreviation "op. cit." should be given. If in a publication the author refers to several publications by a given author, the abbreviated title should also be given (up to three words - depending on the publication, e.g. the first word of the title can only be provided if no other publication begins the same way).
If written for the first time, use the following format: J.B. Dunlop, Russia Confronts Chechnya. Roots of a Separatist Conflict, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2002, p. 63. If the Author repeats a footnote (but not directly after the same), then use the following format: J.B. Dunlop, op. cit. p. 70.
Or (if this is not the only publication by this author to which the Author refers) J.B. Dunlop, Russia Confronts Chechnya ..., op. cit., p. 70.

4) If a footnote provides information first and only then its source - one should insert full-stop at the end ".", and then write "quoting :" and only give the source, e.g. Poland, like Romania and Bulgaria, has the smallest number of immigrants in the EU (less than 1 per cent). Quoting: Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism, Policy Recommendations for the Promotion of Multilingualism in the European Union, European Commission, 9 June 2011, (accessed 16 November 2011).

Quotation marks in footnotes should be used only for newspaper and magazine titles.

6) In the case of online publications, the website address of the information or article should be given. When referring to websites, the date of access to the publication, i.e. the date the document was read on the site, must be given.

Footnotes should be written according to the following formula:
- non-serial publications
- J. Rymarczyk, M. Wróblewski (eds.), Non-European integration groups, Publishing House Oficyna Wydawnicza Arboretum, Wrocław 2006, p. 57-58.
- E. Matuszek, Evolution of conflicts in the North Caucasus: from ethnic problems to holy war, in: J. Brodowski, M. Smoleń, Chechnya-Russia. Myths and Reality, Jagiellonian University Publishing House, Krakow 2006, p. 133.
- scientific periodicals
- J. Rogoża, Internet in Russia: everything you'd like to see in real life, Nowa Europa Wschodnia, no. 3-4, 2011, pp. 67-74.
- S. Koziej, Triad of global asymmetric threats: the consequence of the proliferation of terrorism, nuclear weapons and missile technologies, 'National Security', no. 19, III-2011, “National Security” no 19, III-2011, National Security Bureau, p. 30.
- newspapers and magazines
- J. Haszczyński, Russia stopped the invasion, "Rzeczpospolita", 13 August 2008, p. C14.
- Internet
- J. Korczyńska, M. Duszczyk, Demand for the work of foreigners in Poland, Institute of Public Affairs, (accessed 15 November 2011).
- Agenda for new skills and jobs: A European contribution towards full employment, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, 23 October 2010, (accessed 15 November 2011).
- J. Bocheńska, Europe vis-à-vis immigrants,,633,Europa_wobec_imigrantow (accessed 16 November 2011).
- news agencies` dispatches
- EU - Counter-terrorism experts will meet on Thursday, PAP (Polish Press Agency), 26 July 2011.

III. Not applicable. (Transliteration from English into Polish of Arabic and Persian names)

Incorrect and correct expressions - the most common errors and misused phrases (not applicable – refers to the Polish language).
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